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C.R.I. is one of the oldest cotton research institutions in Egypt and worldwide. Its inception dates back to the first decade of the 20th century when it was established as a unit within a small research station at Giza little before the Ministry of Agriculture was created in 1913. In 1919, GOE established the “Cotton Research Council” to investigate ways and means of improving yield, enhance resistance to pests and diseases, design and implement soil research and plant physiology (fertilization and nutrition).
In 1935, the Experimental Spinning mill was established to compliment the other technical departments .In 1971 ,the Agricultural Research Center was established to mark a new era of integrated research, including breeding, Agronomy, quality and extension .
At the initial stage , research focused on breeding improved , high yielding varieties, based on selection of diserable mutations or genetic segregation of earlier natural hybridization. As of 1921, the Cotton Research Council approved the utilization of artificial hybridization to develop new cotton varieties . The aim was to incorporate into a new strain such diserable traits from parent plants. The technique was further developed to become the major approach for developing new varieties .
Cotton technology research was also developed to complement agronomy research The Experimental Spinning mill is now the second wing of C.R.I. A multi-disciplinary approach within C.R.I. enhances collaboration among cotton breeders, agronomists and technologists in the process of developing new varieties that fulfil needs of the domestic and international Spinners. With this in mind, the National Program for Cotton Improvement functions on two levels: Breeding new varieties exceeding the existing ones in yield, quality or both, together with preserving, renovating and multiplying the grown varieties to produce foundation seeds and specify the most suitable agroclimatic zones for higher yield and better spin ability and continually developing agronomic practices to increase yield and reduce cost.